Category Archives: unix

Exploring the sudoers file: "sudo: sorry, you are not allowed to preserve the environment"

On my NAS I've received sudo: sorry, you are not allowed to preserve the environment today when running sudo -E to transfer the environment from whatever the current shell allows sudo to see, into the new shell.

That's because I was copying something from a remote machine to my NAS, and I (temporarily) wanted to tell remote rsync to use sudo rsync on my NAS to be sure files will be replicated correctly. While this is an absolutely horrible idea to do permanently, a temporary workaround in a safe environment is that sudo rsync should not require a root password:

ivucica ALL=NOPASSWD:/usr/bin/rsync

However, compare this to some of the defaults in /etc/sudoers:

# User privilege specification
root    ALL=(ALL:ALL) ALL

# Allow members of group sudo to execute any command
%sudo   ALL=(ALL:ALL) ALL

Without reading the sudoers(5) manpage, I decided to add ALL at the end:

ivucica ALL=NOPASSWD:/usr/bin/rsync ALL

This seemed to work, but despite a lack of a syntax error, it's wrong (see below): now no password is required for rsync nor for any other command.

# Wrong order:
 ALL=NOPASSWD: /usr/bin/rsync, PASSWD: ALL
# Correct order:
ivucica ALL=PASSWD: ALL, NOPASSWD: /usr/bin/rsync

The best option, however, is to remove the entry completely given that allowing rsync root without a password is dangerous; even if someone managed to hijack my own account's non-password NAS credentials, without the password itself they can't do much.


However, looking online for this error, I realized I've never looked into the syntax of the sudoers file. What's Defaults env_reset, for instance? Turns out sudoers(5) is an interesting read. If you're seriously going to play with editing /etc/sudoers beyond just adding a user (even just specifying the NOPASSWD tag), please read the manpage and carefully experiment. Cover all the edge cases you can think of. Have someone else review your changes.

Here's some interesting stuff:

  • #include (and presumably #includedir) directive to include a file can contain %h (a hostname) in file path
  • to match all users except root, instead of ALL we can specify ALL,!root
  • you can do things like disable setting utmp (set_utmp) or prohibit the capability to disable env_reset (setenv) — which is what I did
  • the first-time "lecture" status ('has this user seen the sudo lecture?') is in /var/lib/sudo/lectured and configurable using lecture_status_dir
  • the password prompt can be overridden with passprompt and can include %H FQDN, %h hostname, %p the user whose password is requested, %U the user whom we're switching to [caveat: PAM module's output must match Password: or username's Password:
  • there are ways to specify directives per running host (important for standardized configs deployed across an org), per requesting user, per run-as user, per command
  • there are tags to tweak execution of a command

While I haven't actually tried all of the following, here are some "notes-to-self" on what individual fields mean. Please prefer learning the details from the manpage.

What does ALL before = mean? Those are the hosts. For instance, we can let roger run anything on all the fileservers:

Host_Alias FILESERVERS = fs1, fs, fs3
Host_Alias INTERNAL_NETWORK = 192.168.55.0/255.255.255.0
Host_Alias FINANCE = 192.168.75.128/25, 192.168.75.15

roger FILESERVERS = ALL

(Just like Host_Alias, there's User_Alias, Runas_Alias and Cmnd_Alias.)

What's (ALL:ALL) after =? That's called a Runas_Spec and it's saying "You can pretend to be any user of any group." Let's only allow roger to run only /usr/bin/rsync and only to do it as mainweb:

User_Alias     FINANCE_DEPLOY      = james, mike
roger          FILESERVERS         = (mainweb) /usr/bin/rsync
richard        richard-workstation = (www-data) ALL
FINANCE_DEPLOY FINANCE             = (financeweb : financeservices) /usr/bin/rsync

And what's the ALL after (ALL:ALL)? As demonstrated, that's the command specification.

Alright, so what's NOPASSWD:? That's a Tag_Spec. Each command may be prefixed with zero or more tags associated with it, such as EXEC, NOEXEC, PASSWD, NOPASSWD, MAIL, NOMAIL. For instance:

# Allow ls and cat without password, but require a password for vi.
richard richard-workstation = (www-data) NOPASSWD: /usr/bin/ls, /usr/bin/cat, NOEXEC: PASSWD: /usr/bin/vi
richard richard-workstation = (www-data) NOPASSWD: /usr/bin/ls, /usr/bin/cat, PASSWD: /usr/bin/vi

Allowlisting only some commands results in the following when a non-allowed command is run:

Sorry, user richard is not allowed to execute '/bin/bash' as root on my.machine.hostname.

And attempting to run a command from within vi when NOEXEC is specified results in:

Cannot execute shell /bin/bash

There's even a way to set things like timeouts. But, again, read the manpage for details.


As usual, this is not advice; these are personal notes from trying to resolve an immediate issue. As this is a security-sensitive feature, for even one person that reads this and configures an important system incorrectly, please note: these notes are written as a hobby. Just like you would with PAM, NSS, LDAP, Kerberos and other things, please carefully read more authoritative documentation sources; I'm not responsible for breakage you may cause with my non-advice.

Scanning on Linux from Canon TS5050 over the network

scangearmp2 screenshot

Turns out that ScanGear MP 3.70 works perfectly with my Canon TS5050. After unpacking the archive and dpkg -i scangearmp2_3.70-1_amd64.deb, I ran scangearmp2, got simple GTK-based GUI, the TS5050 was recognized, and that was it.

scangearmp2 screenshot


I have no idea if it integrates in desktop GUIs, since when I'm under Debian GNU/Linux these days, I am happily using i3 and terminals.

It would be really nice if Canon listed any software for Linux on their official support page for Canon TS5050, but they don't. There are no Linux "bundles" listed (whew!), but this also means there is no software offered at all. Once you choose Linux, you get random offers for Windows and Mac software — but that's just generic ads displayed under the 'no results' area.

Samba 4 + Windows 10 time synchronization issues

Where does ListeningThread -- Recvd 52 of 48/68 bytes come from?

If you follow the instructions for setting up Samba 4 AD DC for time synchronization, ntpd (coming out of Debian's ntp package at some version 4.2.8) should just work.1

I came to this discovery after giving up and discarding my /etc/ntp.conf. Suddenly, after restarting ntpd and running w32tm /resync, things just worked. It's not the software that's broken — it's me that was crazy.

The packet was now 110 bytes in Wireshark (68 of which was data). This was a stark improvement over seeing a 94 byte packet (52 of which was data). C:\temp\ntpDebug.log 2 no longer contained this:

ListeningThread -- Recvd 52 of 48/68 bytes

Hoozah! Now I wanted to figure out what was causing ntpd to send 52b packets, and not either 48b or 68b packets.

Turns out that my restrict statements had unexpected side effects. For instance, Samba wiki-recommended config tries to unrestrict localhost using restrict 127.0.0.1. 3

But I wanted to do the same for IPv6 localhost, so I did restrict ::1. This seems to have greatly confused ntpd.

The way out?

restrict -4 127.0.0.1
restrict -6 ::1

Second mistake was restrict 10.10.10.0 mask 255.255.255.0. It didn't specify that mssntp should be enabled. For good measure I threw in -4:

restrict -4 10.10.10.0 mask 255.255.255.0 mssntp

Given that Samba config doesn't recommend any special allowlisting for my internal IP range, I'll just remove this line completely; the default restriction from the wiki should cover everything clients need to do anyway:

# Access control
# Default restriction: Allow clients only to query the time
restrict default kod nomodify notrap nopeer mssntp

Moral of the story? ntpd seems to be awfully sensitive to restrict statements. If w32time service complains or breaks in some way, be sure to remove the statements bit by bit, or make sure IPv4 and IPv6 statements don't stomp over each other.


  1. Granted, I needed to modify the path to the socket to say /var/lib/samba/ntp_signd/ instead of /usr/local/samba/var/lib/ntp_signd/, but otherwise it just worked. 
  2. That file was created using w32tm /debug /enable /file:C:\temp\ntpDebug.log /size:102400 /entries:0-300 which I found somewhere online. 
  3. Apparently, passing no restrictions at all after the address simply means "unrestrict these peers". 

Enabling zoom 'key' and spell key on Microsoft Natural® Ergonomic Keyboard 4000

The procedure is not best described elsewhere on the web. This article is a mess, too, but it works for me.

Keys need to be remapped to something under keycode 256 in order to work under X11.

  • Try using evtest and pressing keys to see what the keys map to right now.
    • evtest can will also tell you what are all the events supported by the device.
    • evtest will show two devices; you are interested in the second one (which exposes all the extended keys, such as new, reply, open, send, etc.
  • Use xev to see whether the keys are recognized, and as what are they recognized, in X11.

Now for the juicy part:

# put this into: /etc/udev/hwdb.d/61-keyboard-custom.hwdb

# then to update:
#  sudo udevadm hwdb --update && sudo udevadm control --reload-rules && sudo udevadm control --reload
# and:
#  sudo udevadm trigger
# or:
#  for i in /sys/class/input/* ; do if [[ -e "$i"/id/vendor ]] && [[ -e "$i"/id/product ]] && [[ "$(cat "$i"/id/vendor)" == 045e ]] && [[ "$(cat "$i"/id/product)" == 00db ]] ;  then echo $i ; echo change | sudo tee $i/uevent ; fi ; done

# Natural Keyboard 4000
# formerly:
:usb:v045Ep00DB*
# now:
evdev:input:b0003v045Ep00DB*
 KEYBOARD_KEY_0c01ab=finance             # KEY_SPELLCHECK    to KEY_FINANCE
 KEYBOARD_KEY_c022d=up
 KEYBOARD_KEY_c022e=down

We're naming it 61-keyboard-custom.hwdb in order to have it come after /lib/udev/hwdb.d/60-keyboard.hwdb.

Instead of finance, up and down keys, try taking something from this list: quirk-keymap-list.txt — however, I am not certain how to determine which ones are under 256 except by looking at evtest's output.

You can map to keycode 255 and use xmodmap -e "keycode 255 = XF86ZoomIn" to map to a 'proper' zoom in key.

On a related note: If you want to remap scancodes to keycodes, you can do it on the fly using setkeycodes(8)

Some sources:

AppArmor on Ubuntu and MySQL in custom directories

AppArmor profile on Ubuntu is (rightly) restrictive and prevents the daemon binary mysqld from writing to unexpected locations.

So here's another one in my series of 'stupid notes to self' — things that may help a reader, things that will help me, but things that are not proper or full guides to solving a problem.

Starting an already initialized datadir:

normal-user$ /usr/sbin/mysqld --defaults-file=/tmp/barproject-mysql-my.cnf
2018-01-09T21:24:28.090896Z 0 [ERROR] InnoDB: The innodb_system data file 'ibdata1' must be writable
2018-01-09T21:24:28.090907Z 0 [ERROR] InnoDB: The innodb_system data file 'ibdata1' must be writable

Initializing a new one:

normal-user$ /usr/sbin/mysqld --defaults-file=/tmp/barproject-mysql-my.cnf --datadir="$(pwd)/mysql" --log-level-verbosity=VERBOSE --initialize-insecure
mysqld: Can't create directory '/home/foo/projects/bar/_dev/mysql/' (Errcode: 13 -     Permission denied)
2016-10-10T16:23:29.515470Z 0 [Warning] TIMESTAMP with implicit DEFAULT value is deprecated. Please use --explicit_defaults_for_timestamp server option (see documentation for more details).
2016-10-10T16:23:29.519420Z 0 [ERROR] Aborting

(Note that /tmp/barproject-mysql-my.cnf has been created from a template prior to running either of these. It specifies many values including datadir.)

First, I worked under the assumption the daemon was running under the wrong user or that the directory has wrong permissions. However, changing settings to any reasonable value did not get rid of errors with either initialization step or run step.

AppArmor has profiles that may block accesses atypical for the program executed. One such profile is for /usr/sbin/mysqld and is located in /etc/apparmor.d/usr.sbin.mysqld.

I tried symlinking it to /etc/apparmor.d/disable directory and restarting apparmor with systemctl restart apparmor. This didn't change anything. I also tried whitelisting the directory by adding a local configuration change to /etc/apparmor.d/local/usr.sbin.mysqld:

/home/foo/projects/bar/_dev/mysql/** rwk,

systemctl restart apparmor — i.e. restarting through systemd — did not help.

However telling apparmor to tear itself down using the service command, as well as telling it to reload its profile cache, did:

service apparmor stop
service apparmor teardown
service apparmor recache
service apparmor start

There's probably a smarter way, but this is good enough for me.

What are OSC terminal control sequences / escape codes?

Changelog for a recent release of SecureShell for Chrome
included a mention of "Support for iTerm2 OSC-9 growl notifications". This is displayed in terminal when you're SSHing into a machine, and this entry piqued my interest.

Turns out it's from hterm's changelog. And turns out hterm has a nice list of supported control sequences.

OSC are "operating system command" control sequences and there's a few of them supported by hterm / SecureShell. I find a few super interesting (\033 being ESC in the doc linked above):

  • 0: set window title: echo -e "\033]0;This is the window title\a"
  • 9: show system notification (iTerm2 variant): echo -e "\033]9;This is the notification text\a"
  • 777: show system notification (rxvt-unicode / urxvt variant): echo -e "\033]777;notify;This is the notification title;This is the notification text\a"
  • 52: clipboard operation; hterm only supports c for copy: echo -e "\033]52;c;$(base64 <<< hello)\a"